Page tree
Skip to end of metadata
Go to start of metadata

You are viewing an old version of this page. View the current version.

Compare with Current View Page History

« Previous Version 34 Next »

The Moonshot source code is available from our GIT repository and it all can be built by hand relatively easier, assuming you have all of the prerequisite packages installed. This page has instructions for building the software itself.


Still under revision

This page is still under revision and may change at short notice. This page may also be updated with Sierra instructions where applicable.

1. System Preparation

1.1. Requirements

To build all of the Moonshot components, you need various packages installed. To install all of these, see below.

1.1.1. Get the required packages on macOS El Capitan

To get all of the requirements on El Capitan, you will need to install Xcode, the Xcode command-line extensions, and several GNU tools:

  1. Install Xcode from the Mac App Store.

  2. Open a Terminal, then install the Xcode Command Line Tools. You will be prompted with a dialog to install the Command Line Tools after a 130MB download.

    $ xcode-select --install
  3. Install the GNU tools that are required for Moonshot by following the instructions at How to install Autoconf, Automake and related tools on Mac OS X from source?

  4. Install GNU GetText:

    $ curl -O -L
    $ tar -xzf gettext-latest.tar.gz
    $ cd gettext-*
    $ ./configure
    $ make && sudo install
  5. Install MacPorts by downloading the latest install package from, then update it:

    $ sudo port -v selfupdate
  6. Install Makedepend from MacPorts:

    $ sudo port install makedepend
  7. Update CPAN and install JSON:

    $ sudo cpan install JSON

2. Setting build parameters and locations

Just like on Linux, build and installation locations matter, with one vital difference. On macOS, the /usr tree itself is locked down and inaccessible, even for the privileged (root) user. However, locations like /usr/local are open, and with newer versions of the OS, expect this to change.

For the purposes of this set of instructions, we recommend the following:

  1. For all the Moonshot dependencies, including OpenSSL, the Shibboleth dependencies, and Moonshot itself, but excluding Heimdal, the --prefix parameter should be set to /usr/local/moonshot.
    If you decide to change this location, you should appropriately change the locations in the commands in Sections 3 and 5 to your preference.
  2. For Heimdal, the --prefix parameter should be set to /usr/local/heimdal. This is because we are using Heimdal only for the header files that the Heimdal build generates, not for any library linking. It makes the eventual distribution easier.
  3. We recommend that you build all libraries with the -rpath parameter enabled for all libraries to avoid any clashes with other libraries (such as the older version of OpenSSL that macOS ships for compatibility reasons). We have been assured by macOS developers that the clang and libtool tools for macOS support this.
  4. We do NOT recommend using the Apple-provided sources for some libraries (such as Heimdal) as they have various customisations that may negatively impact how Moonshot works, and because Apple categorically WILL NOT support any of their own source sets (we've tried through a Platinum support path and had the support ticket closed and refunded).
    If you DO try using Apple's OpenSource sources and find that things build and function fine, please let us know by commenting on this document (with instructions that we can update this document with).
  5. These instructions should generally be backward-compatible, i.e. El Capitan and earlier versions of macOS/OSX should be fine.

    macOS Sierra

    These instructions currently do not produce something that works on macOS Sierra (the build goes OK, but the mechanism is not invoked). We're investigating why.

3. Download and build the required external dependencies

3.1.1. Boost

  1. Download Boost:

    $ curl -OL
  2. Build Boost:

    $ tar -zvf boost_1_64_0.tar.gz
    $ cd boost_1_64_0
    $ ./
    $ ./b2
  3. Note down the location at the end of the Boost build. You will need it later in this process. In the below examples, we shall use /Users/admin/Desktop/build/boost_1_64_0

3.1.2. OpenSSL

  1. Create a directory called openssl.
  2. Download the OpenSSL build tree from Apple's OpenSource site. Some scripts that Apple provides will be needed, but we will not build it.

    $ cd openssl && curl -OL
  3. Download the latest OpenSSL build from the OpenSSL website. We will build this version.

    $ curl -OL
  4. Extract OpenSSL098-59.60.1.tar.gz, copy its 'bin' directory into the openssl directory, then delete the extracted source.
  5. Edit the script in the bin directory:
    1. Comment out the IDEA removal and patch lines (lines 39-49).
    2. Add the following parameters to each of the three ./Configure lines: no-ssl2 enable-ec_nistp_64_gcc_128
    3. Change the --openssldir parameter to your appropriate directory. We recommend /usr/local/moonshot/bin
    4. Change the --prefix parameter from /usr to /usr/local/moonshot
    5. Comment out the line 'rm -f Makefile'
    6. Find the line 'rm -f x86_64.h i386.h', and insert the following below it: ln -s crypto/idea/idea.h include/openssl/idea.h
  6. From the openssl directory, run the following:

    openssl $ bin/ .
  7. In the src directory, edit the Makefile file:
    1. Add the -DNO_IDEA parameter to the CFLAG line
    2. Add the -DNO_IDEA parameter to the DEPFLAG line
  8. Run the following commands:

    openssl/src $ make depend
    openssl/src $ make
    openssl/src $ sudo make install_sw

3.1.3. Heimdal

Heimdal requires OpenSSL. Once OpenSSL has built successfully, build Heimdal.

  1. Download Heimdal:

    $ curl -OL
  2. Extract Heimdal:

    $ tar -xvf heimdal-7.3.0.tar.gz
  3. Build Heimdal:

    $ cd heimdal-7.3.0
    heimdal-7.3.0$ ./
    heimdal-7.3.0$ ./ --prefix=/usr/local/heimdal --with-openssl=/usr/local/moonshot
    heimdal-7.3.0$ make
    heimdal-7.3.0$ sudo make install
  4. Note down both the location in which you built Heimdal, as well as where the Heimdal libraries are installed to (if you changed the --prefix parameter to something else). You will need a binary from the Heimdal build for the Moonshot build in Section 6, and you will need to set the --with-krb5 parameter of the Moonshot ./configure command in Section 6 to the location where you installed Heimdal.

3.1.4. Xerces-C

  1. Download Xerces from the Apache project site:

    $ curl -OL
  2. Extract Xerces:

    $ tar -xzf xerces-c-3.1.4.tar.gz
  3. Build Xerces:

    $ cd xerces-c-3.1.4
    xerces-c-3.1.4$ LDFLAGS=" -Wl,-rpath,/usr/local/moonshot/lib " ./configure \
    --prefix=/usr/local/moonshot --disable-static --enable-netaccessor-socket --enable-transcoder-macosunicodeconverter
    xerces-c-3.1.4$ make
    xerces-c-3.1.4$ sudo make install

3.1.5. XML-Security-C (Santuario)

  1. Download XML-Security from the Apache project site:

    $ curl -OL
  2. Extract XML-Security:

    $ tar -zxf xml-security-c-1.7.3.tar.gz
  3. Build XML-Security:

    $ cd xml-security-c-1.7.3
    xml-security-c-1.7.3$ LDFLAGS=" -Wl,-rpath,/usr/local/moonshot/lib " ./configure --with-openssl=/usr/local/moonshot \
    --without-xalan --prefix=/usr/local/moonshot --with-xerces=/usr/local/moonshot
    xml-security-c-1.7.3$ make
    xml-security-c-1.7.3$ sudo make install

3.1.6. LibConfuse

  1. Clone the latest Libconfuse repository:

    $ git clone --recursive
  2. Build Libconfuse:

    $ cd libconfuse
    libconfuse$ ./
    libconfuse$ LDFLAGS=" -L/usr/local/moonshot/lib -Wl,-rpath,/usr/local/moonshot/lib " ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/moonshot
    libconfuse$ make
    libconfuse$ sudo make install

3.1.7. LibEvent

  1. Clone the latest Libevent repository:

    $ git clone --recursive
  2. Build Libevent:

    $ cd libevent
    libevent$ ./
    libevent$ CFLAGS=" -I/usr/local/moonshot/include " LDFLAGS=" -L/usr/local/moonshot/lib -Wl,-rpath,/usr/local/moonshot/lib " ./configure \
    libevent$ make
    libevent$ sudo make install

3.1.8. Log4Shib

Moonshot requires Shibboleth, which in turn requires Log4Shib.

  1. Download Log4Shib:

    $ curl -OL
  2. Extract Log4Shib:

    $ tar -zxf log4shib-1.0.9.tar.gz
  3. Build Log4Shib:

    $ cd log4shib-1.0.9
    log4shib-1.0.9$ LDFLAGS=" -L/usr/local/moonshot/lib -Wl,-rpath,/usr/local/moonshot/lib " ./configure \
    --disable-static --disable-doxygen --prefix=/usr/local/moonshot
    log4shib-1.0.9$ make
    log4shib-1.0.9$ sudo make install

4. Checkout the Moonshot source

The Moonshot source code is all stored in a GIT repository. To fetch it, issue the following command.

$ git clone --recursive git://
$ cd moonshot/moonshot && git checkout master && cd -

5. Build Moonshot's internal dependencies

The Moonshot repository contains a set of internal dependencies. These need to be built before you can build the Moonshot mechanism itself.

5.1.1. Libradsec

Libradsec is used by the Moonshot libraries.

  1. Configure the Libradsec build:

    $ cd moonshot/libradsec
    libradsec$ chmod +x
    libradsec$ ./
    libradsec$ LDFLAGS=" -L/usr/local/moonshot/lib -Wl,-rpath,/usr/local/moonshot/lib " CFLAGS=" -I/usr/local/moonshot/include " ./configure \
  2. Edit the Makefile:
    1. Find the AM_CFLAGS line, remove the -Werror parameter.
    2. Find the libradsec_la_CFLAGS line, remove the -Werror parameter
    3. Save the file.
  3. Build Libradsec:

    libradsec$ make
    libradsec$ sudo make install
    libradsec$ cd -

5.1.2. Jansson

Jansson is used by the Moonshot libraries.

  1. Confgure and build Jansson:

    $ cd moonshot/jansson
    jansson$ libtoolize --force --automake
    jansson$ aclocal -I m4 $ACLOCAL_FLAGS
    jansson$ autoheader
    jansson$ automake --add-missing
    jansson$ autoconf
    jansson$ LDFLAGS=" -L/usr/local/moonshot/lib -Wl,-rpath,/usr/local/moonshot/lib " CFLAGS=" -I/usr/local/moonshot/include " ./configure \
    --prefix=/usr/local/moonshot --with-sysroot=/usr/local/moonshot
    jansson$ make
    jansson$ sudo make install
    jansson$ cd -

5.1.3. XMLTooling

XMLTooling is used by the Shibboleth libraries required by Moonshot.

  1. Configure and build XMLTooling:

    $ cd moonshot/shibboleth/xmltooling
    xmltooling$ libtoolize --force --automake
    xmltooling$ aclocal -I m4 $ACLOCAL_FLAGS
    xmltooling$ autoheader
    xmltooling$ automake --add-missing
    xmltooling$ autoconf
    xmltooling$ LDFLAGS=" -L/usr/local/moonshot/lib -Wl,-rpath,/usr/local/moonshot/lib " CFLAGS=" -I/usr/local/moonshot/include " ./configure \
    --with-log4shib=/usr/local/moonshot --prefix=/usr/local/moonshot --with-boost=/Users/admin/Desktop/build/boost_1_64_0 -C --with-openssl=/usr/local/moonshot
    xmltooling$ make
    xmltooling$ sudo make install
    xmltooling$ cd -

5.1.4. OpenSAML

OpenSAML is used by the Shibboleth libraries required by Moonshot.

  1. Configure and built OpenSAML:

    $ cd moonshot/shibboleth/opensaml2
    opensaml2$ libtoolize --force --automake
    opensaml2$ aclocal -I m4 $ACLOCAL_FLAGS
    opensaml2$ autoheader
    opensaml2$ automake --add-missing
    opensaml2$ autoconf
    opensaml2$ LDFLAGS=" -L/usr/local/moonshot/lib -Wl,-rpath,/usr/local/moonshot/lib " CFLAGS=" -I/usr/local/include " ./configure \
    --with-log4shib=/usr/local/moonshot --prefix=/usr/local/moonshot --with-boost=/Users/admin/Desktop/build/boost_1_64_0 \ 
    --with-openssl=/usr/local/moonshot -C
    opensaml2$ make
    opensaml2$ sudo make install
    opensaml2$ cd saml
    saml$ sudo make install
    saml$ cd ../../../..

5.1.5. Shibboleth SP

The Shibboleth SP provides XML parsing and attribute release to the Moonshot mechanism.

  1. Generate the Shibboleth SP build script:

    $ cd moonshot/shibboleth/sp
    sp$ libtoolize --force --automake
    sp$ aclocal -I m4 $ACLOCAL_FLAGS
    sp$ autoheader
    sp$ automake --add-missing
    sp$ autoconf
  2. Edit the configure script, find the PKG_CHECK_MODULES(SYSTEMD, libsystemd-daemon) line and comment it out. Save the file.

  3. Configure and build the Shibboleth SP:

    sp$ LDFLAGS=" -L/usr/local/moonshot/lib -Wl,-rpath,/usr/local/moonshot/lib " CFLAGS=" -I/usr/local/moonshot/include " ./configure \
    --with-log4shib=/usr/local/moonshot --prefix=/usr/local/moonshot --with-boost=/Users/admin/Desktop/build/boost_1_64_0 --disable-doxygen-doc \
    --disable-doxygen-html --disable-adfs --disable-odbc --enable-systemd=no --enable-apache-13=no --enable-apache-20=no --enable-apache-22=no \
    --enable-apache-24=no --with-xmltooling=/usr/local/moonshot  --with-openssl=/usr/local/moonshot
    sp$ make
    sp$ sudo make install
    sp$ cd shibd
    shibd$ sudo make install && cd ..
    sp$ cd shibsp
    shibsp$ sudo make install
    shibsp$ sudo /bin/sh ../libtool --silent --mode=install /usr/bin/install -c '/usr/local/moonshot/lib'
    shibsp$ cd ../../../..
  4. Note down the location of where you built the Shibboleth SP. You will require this location later in Section 6 for the Moonshot ./configure command.

5.1.6. Shibboleth Resolver

  1. Generate the Shibboleth Resolver build script:

    $ cd moonshot/shibboleth/resolver
    resolver$ libtoolize --force --automake
    resolver$ aclocal -I m4 $ACLOCAL_FLAGS
    resolver$ autoheader
    resolver$ automake --add-missing
    resolver$ autoconf
  2. Edit the configure script, find the if test "x$ac_cv_header_shibsp_SPConfig_h" = xyes; line.

  3. Comment out the entire statement that the line is part of.

  4. Find the as_fn_error $? "unable to link with Shibboleth SP" "$LINENO" 5 line (15-20 lines below the statement you just commented out).

  5. Comment out the entire statement that the line is part of.

  6. Save the configure script.

  7. Configure the Shibboleth Resolver:

    resolver$ LIBS="-framework GSS -F/System/Library/PrivateFrameworks -framework Heimdal" \
    CPPFLAGS="-I/usr/local/moonshot/include -I/Users/admin/Desktop/build/boost_1_64_0 -I/usr/local/include" \
    LDFLAGS=" -L/usr/local/moonshot/lib -Wl,-rpath,/usr/local/moonshot/lib -L/Users/admin/Desktop/build/boost_1_64_0/stage/lib" ./configure \
    --with-log4shib=/usr/local/moonshot --prefix=/usr/local/moonshot --with-xmltooling=/usr/local/moonshot --with-shibsp=/usr/local/moonshot \
  8. Edit the top-level Makefile, find the LIBS = line. Remove the parameters -L/usr/local/heimdal/lib -lgssapi. Save the file.
  9. Edit the Makefile in the src directory, find the LIBS = line. Remove the parameters -L/usr/local/heimdal/lib -lgssapi. Save the file.
  10. Build the Shibboleth Resolver:

    resolver$ make
    resolver$ sudo make install
    resolver$ cd src
    src$ sudo  /bin/sh ../libtool --silent --mode=install /usr/bin/install -c '/usr/local/moonshot/lib'
    src$ cd ../../../..

6. Build Moonshot

  1. Before building Moonshot, check what the HEAD of your Git tree is:

    $ cd moonshot && git rev-parse --short HEAD
  2. Check the output.
  3. If your head revision is dfa044b5b, please download the Heimdal patch first, then follow Step 4 to apply it. Otherwise, go to Step 5.
  4. Apply the Heimdal patch:

    moonshot$ git apply < heimdal-patch.patch
  5. Configure the Moonshot build:

    moonshot$ ./
    moonshot$ LDFLAGS=" -L/usr/local/moonshot/lib -Wl,-rpath,/usr/local/moonshot/lib " \
    CPPFLAGS="-I/Users/admin/Desktop/build/boost_1_64_0 -I/Users/admin/Desktop/build/moonshot/shibboleth/sp/src -I/usr/local/moonshot/include" \
    LIBS="-framework GSS -F/System/Library/PrivateFrameworks -framework Heimdal -L/Users/admin/Desktop/build/boost_1_64_0/stage/lib -L/usr/local/moonshot/lib" \
    COMPILE_ET="/Users/admin/Desktop/build/heimdal-7.3.0/lib/com_err/compile_et" SHIBSP_LIBS=/usr/local/moonshot/lib \
    SHIBSP_CXXFLAGS="-I/usr/local/moonshot/include" SHIBRESOLVER_LIBS=/usr/local/moonshot/lib SHIBRESOLVER_CXXFLAGS="-I/usr/local/moonshot/include" \
    ./configure --with-krb5=/usr/local/heimdal --with-radsec=/usr/local/moonshot --with-opensaml=/usr/local/moonshot \
    --with-shibresolver=/usr/local/moonshot --with-shibsp=/usr/local/moonshot --with-openssl=/usr/local/moonshot --with-jansson=/usr/local/moonshot \

    Configure script parameters

    There are several parameters in the command above that rely on locations noted down previously:

    CPPFLAGS contains three explicit include location references, the first is the Boost library header location from Section 3.1.1, the second the Shibboleth SP source from Section 5.1.5 and the third the general Moonshot location.

    LIBS contains two explicit library location references, the first is the Boost library location from Section 3.1.1, the second the general Moonshot library location.

    COMPILE_ET contains the full path to the compile_et binary that will be in your Heimdal build tree. You noted this down in the last step of Section 3.1.3.

    --with-krb5 contains the location where the Heimdal libraries and headers were installed. You noted this down in the last step of Section 3.1.3.

  6. Edit the top-level Makefile:
    1. Remove the parameter -L/usr/local/heimdal/lib from the KRB5_LDFLAGS line.
    2. Remove the parameters  -L/usr/local/heimdal/lib -lgssapi from the KRB5_LIBS line in the file.
    3. Save the file.
  7. Edit the Makefile in the libeap directory:
    1. Remove the parameter -L/usr/local/heimdal/lib from the KRB5_LDFLAGS line.
    2. Remove the parameters -L/usr/local/heimdal/lib -lgssapi from the KRB5_LIBS line in the file.
    3. Save the file.
  8. Edit the Makefile in the mech_eap directory:
    1. Remove the parameter -L/usr/local/heimdal/lib from the KRB5_LDFLAGS line.
    2. Remove the parameters -L/usr/local/heimdal/lib -lgssapi from the KRB5_LIBS line in the file.
    3. Remove the parameters -L/usr/local/heimdal/lib -lgssapi from the mech_eap_la_LIBADD line in the file.
    4. Remove the parameter -Werror from the mech_eap_la_CFLAGS line.
    5. Remove the parameter -Werror from the mech_eap_la_CXXFLAGS line.
    6. Save the file.
  9. Build Moonshot:

    moonshot$ make
    moonshot$ sudo make install

    You should now have a file in /usr/local/lib/gss.

7. Test Moonshot

To test this build of Moonshot, you will need to make some privileged changes to the system you built this on:

  1. In /etc, create a gss directory:

    moonshot$ sudo mkdir -p /etc/gss
  2. Copy the mech file from the Moonshot mech_eap build directory to /etc/gss

    moonshot$ sudo cp mech_eap/mech /etc/gss/
  3. As the privileged user, edit the /etc/gss/mech file:
    1. Change the entry on each line to the full path of the library, e.g. /usr/local/lib/gss/
    2. Save the file.
  4. Create a .gss_eap_id file in your user's home directory:
    1. On the first line of the file, put your Moonshot credential in email form, e.g. username@moonshot.realm.
    2. On the second line of the file, put your password for the Moonshot credential in the first line.
    3. Save the file.
  5. Run an SSH command to a Moonshot-enabled system that the credentials you added in the previous step will be valid for:

    ssh -Kv user@moonshot-host.realm

    Jisc Assent

    If you have an identity provider on the Jisc Assent network, you can use ssh -Kv to test whether your macOS Moonshot mechanism worked successfully.

  6. You should successfully connect to the service, and you should see several lines like this in the output:

    debug1: SSH2_MSG_SERVICE_REQUEST sent
    debug1: SSH2_MSG_SERVICE_ACCEPT received
    debug1: Authentications that can continue: publickey,gssapi-keyex,gssapi-with-mic,password
    debug1: Delegating credentials
    debug1: Delegating credentials
    debug1: Delegating credentials
    debug1: Delegating credentials
    debug1: Delegating credentials
    debug1: Delegating credentials
    debug1: Delegating credentials
    debug1: Delegating credentials
    debug1: Delegating credentials
    debug1: Delegating credentials
    debug1: Delegating credentials
    debug1: Authentication succeeded (gssapi-with-mic).
    Authenticated to ([]:22).
    debug1: channel 0: new [client-session]
    debug1: Requesting
    debug1: Entering interactive session.
    debug1: Sending environment.
    debug1: Sending env LANG = en_GB.UTF-8

    Jisc Assent

    On the Jisc Assent Test SSH Service, the final output for success will be this:

    debug1: Entering interactive session.
    debug1: Sending environment.
    debug1: Sending env LANG = en_GB.UTF-8
    *** JISC Moonshot Test SSH Server ***
    You have successfully logged in with Moonshot.
    You are user: moonshot
    [moonshot@ssh ~]$

8. Distribute and install Moonshot

To distribute this binary set, you will need to trim down the binaries you have built to include only the dynamic libraries and only bare essentials needed to run the mechanism:

  1. Make a copy of the /usr/local directory into a second location as the privileged user.

  2. Once the duplication process is complete, change to your duplicate location's usr/local directory and delete all directories except the following:

    1. lib

    2. moonshot

  3. In the lib directory, delete everything except the following:
    1. gss
    2. libintl.8.dylib
    3. libintl.dylib
  4. In the moonshot directory, delete the following:
    1. include, share, sbin, var directories
  5. In the moonshot/etc/shibboleth directory, delete:
    1. all *.dist files
    2. all *.pem files
    3. all shibd-* files
    4. all apache*.config files
  6. In the moonshot/lib directory, delete:
    1. all *.a files
    2. all *.la files
    3. the pkgconfig directory
  7. Now use tar to package up the contents of your distribution directory. You should have a tarball around 7MB in size.
  8. On your target machine, extract the tarball in such a way that the files end up in the /usr/local/lib and /usr/local/moonshot directories.
  9. To finish the deployment, create the /etc/gss/mech file, then try to run the SSH test (section 7, steps 4 to 6) to check that the mechanism is correctly loaded.

9. Issues

Current issues with this build include that the macOS SSH client abandons any gssapi-with-mic conversations if the first mechanism it chooses, fails.

In a domain environment, this usually involves a Kerberos interaction, i.e. where you have received a Kerberos ticket before by logging in or by running kinit. Other ssh clients (or a custom build of the ssh client) may not exhibit this behaviour.

On macOS Sierra, the native SSH client is sandboxed when run from its default location in /usr/bin. Making a copy elsewhere on the system enables it to authenticate with Moonshot. We are currently investigating this to see how this can be solved.

  • No labels