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On this page you will find instructions on how to set up a Trust Router APC on RedHat, CentOS or Scientific Linux 7.4 using FreeRADIUS. It also installs and configures the Trust Router client.

Contents

Complexity of Installation

Many of the steps outlined below are currently necessary, but we realise the install should be simpler. As the software matures and the packaging improves, we will make this process easier with fewer manual steps required. For the purposes of this documentation, we shall use CentOS.

1. System Preparation

1.1. Install CentOS 7

The first thing that is required is a CentOS machine - this can be physical or virtual.

  1. Install the operating system via usual mechanism (e.g., net boot CD, ISO in VMware/VirtualBox or the DVD image).
  2. Choose the following server install options: "Basic server”.
  3. Create/choose a secure root password and an initial system user account.
  4. Once installed, make sure you run a yum makecache and yum update to ensure your system is fully up to date.

Tip

We would recommend using LVM when disk partitioning to allow easier partition/disk expansion on a live system.

Warning

After install, you will want to secure/lockdown the server as best practice dictates - for both the server and any extra software installed. This is beyond the remit of this guide but there are many guides available that provide information on how to secure your CentOS servers and applications.

1.2. Configure CentOS 7

Next, there are a few CentOS configuration options that need to be set in advance.

1.2.1. SELinux configuration

There are currently no SELinux policies for Moonshot, and SELinux must be run in Permissive mode.

For CentOS SELinux information please refer to the CentOS documentation: https://www.centos.org/docs/5/html/5.2/Deployment_Guide/sec-sel-enable-disable.html

1.2.2. Networking configuration

For production deployments, it is recommended that the machine be assigned a static IP address.

For CentOS networking information please refer to the CentOS documentation: https://www.centos.org/docs/5/html/5.1/Deployment_Guide/ch-network-config.html

1.2.3. Firewall configuration

The following ports are required to be accessible from the outside world, both in the local firewall and in any external firewalls:

  • 2083/tcp (for RadSec connections to other Moonshot entities)
  • 12309/tcp (for Trust Router client connections - if using the Trust Router to broker trust relationships between entities)

1.3. Add the Required Repositories

Moonshot requires three yum repositories to be added to the system - EPEL and the Shibboleth repositories (home of some required dependencies), and the Moonshot repository itself.

  1. Install EPEL by running the following command:

    $ yum install epel-release

    Depending on your platform, the epel-release package is part of one of the optional repositories.

    On CentOS, it is part of the Extras repository. On RHEL, you must enable both the Optional and Extras repositories. For more information, visit the EPEL homepage.

    On newer releases of Scientific Linux 7, the epel-release package does not exist. Use yum install yum-conf-epel instead. For more information, see the Scientific Linux 7.2 release notes.

  2. Install the Moonshot repository by creating a new file at /etc/yum.repos.d/moonshot.repo with the following content:

    [Moonshot]
    name=Moonshot
    baseurl=http://repository.project-moonshot.org/rpms/centos7/
    failovermethod=priority
    gpgcheck=1
    gpgkey=file:///etc/pki/rpm-gpg/Moonshot
  3. Install the Moonshot GPG key:

    $ wget -O /etc/pki/rpm-gpg/Moonshot http://repository.project-moonshot.org/rpms/centos7/moonshot.key

    Verifying the Moonshot GPG key

    If you wish to verify the Moonshot GPG key's validity and integrity, please see the Packaging GPG Key for further details.

  4. Optionally, install the official Shibboleth repository. 

    $ wget -O /etc/yum.repos.d/shibboleth.repo http://download.opensuse.org/repositories/security://shibboleth/CentOS_7/security:shibboleth.repo

    You may need this repository in some configurations, but you should disable the repository if it is not necessary by inserting the below line into /etc/yum.repos.d/shibboleth.repo:

    enabled=0

2. Install the Software

We’re now ready to install the Moonshot software and its required dependencies. Install the software by running the following command:

$ yum install moonshot-gss-eap moonshot-ui freeradius-abfab freeradius-utils trust_router dbus-x11

3. Configure the Moonshot APC

Next, we need to configure the Moonshot APC.

3.1. Configure FreeRADIUS

3.1.1. Certificates

We need to get FreeRADIUS to create some private and public keys to use for its RadSec connections. Create and install the certificates by doing the following (as root).

  1. Change into the /etc/raddb/certs directory

    $ cd /etc/raddb/certs
  2. Edit the certificate generation properties in client.cnfserver.cnf, and ca.cnf as follows:

    1. In the ca.cnf file:
      1. In the [ req ] section, add encrypt_key = no
      2. In the [CA_default] section, change the default_days from 60 to a higher number (this is how long the certificates you create will be valid for). When the certificates expire, you will have to recreate them.

      3. in the [ certificate_authority ] section, change all of the parameters to match those of your organisation. e.g.

        [certificate_authority]
        countryName             = GB
        stateOrProvinceName     = England
        localityName            = Camford
        organizationName        = Camford University
        emailAddress            = support@camford.ac.uk
        commonName              = "Camford University FR Certificate Authority"
    2. In the server.cnf file:

      1. In the [ req ] section, add encrypt_key = no
      2. In the [CA_default] section, change the default_days from 60 to a higher number (this is how long the certificates you create will be valid for). When the certificates expire, you will have to recreate them.
      3. in the [ server ] section, change all of the parameters to match those of your organisation. e.g.

        [server]
        countryName             = GB
        stateOrProvinceName     = England
        localityName            = Camford
        organizationName        = Camford University
        emailAddress            = support@camford.ac.uk
        commonName              = "Camford University FR Server Certificate"

        When changing passwords in the [ req ] section of the server.cnf file, you must also update the private_key_password option in the FreeRADIUS mods-available/eap file with the same password.

        We recommend that you do not change these defaults.

    3. In the client.cnf file:

      1. In the [ req ] section, add encrypt_key = no
      2. In the [CA_default] section, change the default_days from 60 to a higher number (this is how long the certificates you create will be valid for). When the certificates expire, you will have to recreate them.
      3. in the [ client ] section, change all of the parameters to match those of your organisation. e.g.

        [client]
        countryName             = GB
        stateOrProvinceName     = England
        localityName            = Camford
        organizationName        = Camford University
        emailAddress            = support@camford.ac.uk
        commonName              = "Camford University FR Client Certificate"
        All of the organisation parameters (countryName, localityName, etc) need to match in the three .cnf files but the commonName must be unique in each file)
  3. Clear out any old certificates in the directory:

    $ make destroycerts
  4. Run the bootstrap script to generate the certificates

    $ ./bootstrap
  5. Create a file that is the concatenation of the certificate and private key of the client.

    1. Create the file

      $ openssl x509 -in client.crt > client.pem ; cat client.key >> client.pem
    2. Verify that the client.pem file starts with "-----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----".

     

  6. Because the above command was run as root, the keys and certificates created will not be readable by the FreeRADIUS user by default, and FreeRADIUS will not be able to start. To fix this, reset the group for the files:

    $ chgrp radiusd {client,server,ca,dh}*

3.1.2. RadSec

Next we need to configure RadSec. We do this by creating a file at /etc/radsec.conf with the following:

realm gss-eap {
	type = "TLS"
	cacertfile = "/etc/raddb/certs/ca.pem"
	certfile = "/etc/raddb/certs/client.pem"
	certkeyfile = "/etc/raddb/certs/client.key"
	disable_hostname_check = yes
	server {
		hostname = "127.0.0.1"
		service = "2083"
		secret = "radsec"
	}
}

3.1.3. Realm

We next need to configure your realm in the FreeRADIUS server so that it knows not to send any requests for your own users off to another server.

  1. Configure your realm in /etc/raddb/proxy.conf
    1. Open the file for editing and find the line “realm example.com {“
    2. Above this, add the following, where YOUR_APC_REALM should be substituted by your APC realm (e.g. apc.moonshot.ja.net):

      realm YOUR_APC_REALM {
      	# Intentionally left blank
      }

3.1.4. Channel Binding Support

We next need to configure your FreeRADIUS server to support channel bindings.

  1. Open /etc/raddb/sites-available/abfab-tls for editing:
    1. Scroll to the client default stanza at the bottom of the file
    2. Edit the stanza to match the below:

      client default {
              ipaddr = 0.0.0.0/0
              proto = tls
              gss_acceptor_realm_name = "your APC realm here"
              trust_router_coi = "your APC realm here"
      }
    3. If you have any other client definitions here, for example to distinguish between internal and external clients, also apply the change to them.

3.1.5. EAP Type

Set the EAP type in use by Moonshot (EAP-TTLS) by editing /etc/raddb/mods-enabled/eap

  1. Find the first instance of default_eap_type = md5 and change it to TTLS, i.e.:

    default_eap_type = ttls
Other EAP types should be supported (PEAP and MD5 have been tested).

3.1.6. Returning the User-Name

The APC must return the User-Name attribute in its RADIUS response.

  1. As root, find the post-auth section in the /etc/raddb/sites-available/abfab-tr-idp file.

    1. Insert the below at the top of the section, if it does not already exist:

      	#
      	#  For EAP-TTLS and PEAP, add the cached attributes to the reply.
      	#  The "session-state" attributes are automatically cached when
      	#  an Access-Challenge is sent, and automatically retrieved
      	#  when an Access-Request is received.
      	#
      	#  The session-state attributes are automatically deleted after
      	#  an Access-Reject or Access-Accept is sent.
      	#
      	update {
      		&reply: += &session-state:
      	}
    2. Save the file.
  2. As root, find the post-auth section in the /etc/raddb/sites-available/inner-tunnel file.
    1. At the top of the post-auth section, insert the following text:

      	#
      	#  Return the User-Name
      	#
      	update reply {
      		User-Name := &request:User-Name
      	}
    2. Then look for the following text towards the bottom of the post-auth section:

      	#
      	#  Instead of "use_tunneled_reply", uncomment the
      	#  next two "update" blocks.
      	#
      #	update {
      #		&outer.session-state: += &reply:
      #	}
      
      	#
      	#  These attributes are for the inner session only.
      	#  They MUST NOT be sent in the outer reply.
      	#
      	#  If you uncomment the previous block and leave
      	#  this one commented out, WiFi WILL NOT WORK,
      	#  because the client will get two MS-MPPE-keys
      	#
      #	update outer.session-state {
      #		MS-MPPE-Encryption-Policy !* ANY
      #		MS-MPPE-Encryption-Types !* ANY
      #		MS-MPPE-Send-Key !* ANY
      #		MS-MPPE-Recv-Key !* ANY
      #		Message-Authenticator !* ANY
      #		EAP-Message !* ANY
      #		Proxy-State !* ANY
      #	}
       
    3. If the text does not exist, insert it above the comments that describe the line "Post-Auth-Type REJECT {".
    4. Remove the comments from the update statements in the text.
    5. Save the file.

4. Resource Provider Authentication

All Resource Providers in the Trust Router network, including all IdPs and RP Proxies and the Trust Router itself, need to authenticate themselves to the APC using Moonshot. This means that for every service or organisation, you must provision a credential on the APC.

In a production environment, we recommend you use a method of Resource Provider Authentication that integrates well with your chosen method of managing your Trust Router infrastructure.

See Configuring FreeRADIUS to Use a Local Identity Store for options to define credentials.

We recommend using an automatic means to provision credential files, such as an online portal.

4.1. Defining the APC credential

During testing, we recommend using the FreeRADIUS users file to define credentials that your Resource Providers can use to authenticate to the APC. We will create a user with username "testapc" and password "testing".

  1. Open /etc/raddb/users for editing and put the following at the top of the file:

    testapc	Cleartext-Password := "testing"
    			Reply-Message = "Hello test user. You have authenticated!"

    The formatting of the stanza above is very important. There should be a <tab> in between the username and Cleartext-Password, and a line break followed by a <tab> before the Reply-Message.

4.2. Provisioning the APC credential

For the APC credential you defined in the previous step, create a Moonshot credential XML file:

  1. Set the <user> tag to the credential you defined in the previous step, e.g. testapc
  2. Set the <password> tag to its appropriate password. You may wish to base64-encode the password.
  3. Set the <realm> tag to YOUR_APC_REALM.
  4. You can leave the <services> tag out.
  5. You should set the <selection-rules> tag to:

    selection-rules
        <selection-rules>
           <rule>
             <pattern>trustidentity/*</pattern>
             <always-confirm>false</always-confirm>
           </rule>
        </selection-rules>
  6. Define either of the two trust anchors as per the moonshot-webp XML Format documentation.

    For simple test infrastructures, you may leave out the trust anchors, but it is not recommended

  7. Save the file, then deploy it onto the Trust Router that you are connecting to this APC (see Section 3.2.2 of Install a Trust Router).

5. Configure the Trust Router connection

The APC is fundamental to a Trust Router network, so the next step involves configuring the Trust Router client software and configuring its connection to a Trust Router.

5.1. Set up the FreeRADIUS and Trust Router users

We need to place the FreeRADIUS user and the Trust Router users into each other's groups to allow them to read shared files of each others.

$ usermod -a -G radiusd trustrouter
$ usermod -a -G trustrouter radiusd

5.2. Configure TIDS

The IdP also runs the Temporary ID Server (TIDS).

  1. Open the /etc/sysconfig/tids file for editing:

    TIDS_SERVER_IP="[your server IP]"					# IP address that the TIDS is reachable on
    TIDS_SERVER_NAME="[your server hostname]"			# The host name that the TIDS is known as
    TIDS_USER="trustrouter"							# The user that the TIDS is running as
    TIDS_GROUP="trustrouter"							# The group that the TIDS is running as
    TIDS_GSS_NAME="testapc@YOUR_APC_REALM"			# The user name for the APC, defined in Section 4.1
    KEYFILE="/var/lib/trust_router/keys"				# The key file that the TIDS will store keys in
    
    ## Static variables that you can also adjust
    TIDS_PIDDIR="/var/run/trust_router"
    TIDS_LOGDIR="/var/log/trust_router"
  2. Open the /usr/lib/systemd/system/tids.service file for editing and check that the file includes the following lines:

    [Service]
    EnvironmentFile=/etc/sysconfig/tids
    ExecStartPre=/bin/sh -c "/usr/bin/sqlite3 </usr/share/trust_router/schema.sql /var/lib/trust_router/keys"
    ExecStart=/usr/bin/tids ${TIDS_SERVER_IP} ${TIDS_GSS_NAME} ${TIDS_SERVER_NAME} /var/lib/trust_router/keys
    Restart=always
    StandardOutput=syslog
    StandardError=inherit
    User=trustrouter

    Temporary workaround

    Edit the EnvironmentFile and ExecStart lines to match the above. We are fixing this in the next release.

6. Testing

Now that we have the Moonshot IdP installed and configured, we're now ready to test!

Tip

At this point you probably want three consoles open on the server, so that you can manually run various components separately.

6.1. Testing FreeRADIUS locally

The first test is to check whether FreeRADIUS is working in its most basic manner.

  1. In window 1, run (as root user)

    $ radiusd -fxx -l stdout

    OpenSSL version issue

    FreeRADIUS may fail to start with an error message:

    Refusing to start with libssl version OpenSSL 1.0.1e-fips 11 Feb 2013 0x01000105f (1.0.1e-15) (in range 1.0.1-0 - 1.0.1f-15)
    Security advisory CVE-2014-0160 (Heartbleed)
    For more information see http://heartbleed.comOnce you have verified libssl has been correctly patched, set security.allow_vulnerable_openssl = 'CVE-2014-0160'

     

    This is because of how the version of OpenSSL is detected. If you are sure that you are fully up to date, then edit /etc/raddb/radiusd.conf and edit the end of the security { } section:

            #
            #allow_vulnerable_openssl = no
            allow_vulnerable_openssl = 'CVE-2014-0160'
    }

  2. In window 2, run (as root user)

    $ radtest testapc@YOUR-APC-REALM testing localhost 2222 testing123

    This uses the "radtest" utility which is used in the following way - radtest username password servername port shared-secret

  3. If this is working correctly you should see something like the following:

    In window 1 - FreeRADIUS server output
    Sending Access-Accept of id 57 from 127.0.0.1 port 1812 to 127.0.0.1 port 33363
         Reply-Message = 'Hello test user. You have authenticated!'
    (1) Finished request 1.
    Waking up in 0.3 seconds.
    Waking up in 4.6 seconds.
    (1) Cleaning up request packet ID 57 with timestamp +94
    Ready to process requests.
    In window 2 - radtest client output
    Sending Access-Request of id 57 from 0.0.0.0 port 33363 to 127.0.0.1 port 1812
         User-Name = 'testapc'
         User-Password = 'testing'
         NAS-IP-Address = 127.0.1.1
         NAS-Port = 2222
         Message-Authenticator = 0x00
    rad_recv: Access-Accept packet from host 127.0.0.1 port 1812, id=57, length=61
         Reply-Message = 'Hello test user. You have authenticated!'

6.2. Testing the Trust Router connection

To test the connection to Trust Router, we need to make sure the Temporary Identity Server (TIDS) software is running, then use the Temporary Identity Client (TIDC) software to simulate a connection to the Trust Router.

6.2.1. Starting the Temporary Identity Server (TIDS)

In window 3 (window 1 should still be still running the FreeRADIUS server and window 2 the radtest command), run the TIDS software:

$ tids [your server IP] testapc@YOUR-APC-REALM [your server hostname] /var/lib/trust_router/keys

testapc@YOUR-APC-REALM is the identity that the trust router will use when provisioning keys - this makes it easy to spot in your own log files.
Specifying your server's IP and hostname may seem redundant (and for single server deployments, it is!). You'll need to set the hostname and IP arguments a little differently if you want to enable some more advanced configurations (such as load balancing and key sharing).

This uses the "tids" binary which is used in the following way - tids [your-ip-address] trustrouter-gss-name] [your-hostname] [path-to-key-database]

When using Network Address Translation (NAT) or a firewall, you must specify your external IP address.

 

6.2.2. Run an APC authentication test

At this point, you must configure your trust router to use testapc@YOUR-APC-REALM as authentication.

  1. The trust router configuration must be updated with the test user associated with your trust router's rp_realm filter lines.
  2. The trust router configuration must be updated with your new APC designated as the APC for your trust router.
  3. The trust router must have its Moonshot credential store updated with the test user and its password. See Section 3.2.2 of install a trust router (RHEL/CentOS/SL 6 or Debian 7)
  4. The trust router must be restarted. At this point, the trust router will attempt to authenticate itself to the APC.
  5. In the FreeRADIUS console, you should see an Access-Accept response.

 

7. Next Steps

At this point, you now have a Moonshot APC that is working. Now for the next steps:

7.1. Automatically start the software

7.1.1. FreeRADIUS

To automatically start FreeRADIUS, issue the following command (as root):

$ sudo chkconfig radiusd on

If this is working correctly, you should see FreeRADIUS running as a daemon process.

7.1.2. TIDS

To automatically start TIDS, issue the following command (as root):

$ sudo chkconfig tids on
$ sudo service tids start 

If this is working correctly, you should see TIDS running as a daemon process.

7.2. Configure a real source of Authentication

Your FreeRADIUS server can currently only authenticate a single user - "testapc". At this point, you will want to connect FreeRADIUS to your management database. The FreeRADIUS site has information and instructions for how to do this.