On this page you will find instructions on how to set up a Trust Router APC on Debian 7 (Wheezy) using FreeRADIUS. It also installs and configures the Trust Router client.


Many of the steps outlined below are currently necessary, but we realise the install should be simpler. As the software matures and the packaging improves, we will to make this process easier with fewer manual steps required.

Install the Software

We’re now ready to install the Moonshot software and its required dependencies. Install the software by running the following command:

$ apt-get install freeradius-abfab freeradius moonshot-gss-eap moonshot-ui moonshot-trust-router dbus-x11

If you try to start FreeRADIUS at this point, it will not currently start successfully as the certificates it requires have not been generated - they are created in step 3.1 below.


Configure the Moonshot APC

Next, we need to configure the Moonshot APC.

Configure FreeRADIUS


Next we need to configure RadSec. We do this by creating a file at /etc/radsec.conf with the following:

realm gss-eap {
	type = "TLS"
	cacertfile = "/etc/freeradius/certs/ca.pem"
	certfile = "/etc/freeradius/certs/client.pem"
	certkeyfile = "/etc/freeradius/certs/client.key"
	disable_hostname_check = yes
	server {
		hostname = ""
		service = "2083"
		secret = "radsec"


We next need to configure your realm in the FreeRADIUS server so that it knows not to send any requests for your own users off to another server.

  1. Configure your realm in /etc/freeradius/proxy.conf
    1. Open the file for editing and find the line “realm example.com {“
    2. Above this, add the following, where YOUR_REALM should be substituted for the realm you intend to use for your APC:

      realm YOUR_REALM {
      	# Intentionally left blank

Channel Binding Support

We next need to configure your FreeRADIUS server to support channel bindings.

  1. Open /etc/freeradius/sites-available/abfab-tls for editing:
    1. Scroll to the client default stanza at the bottom of the file
    2. Edit the stanza to match the below:

      client default {
              ipaddr =
              proto = tls
              gss_acceptor_realm_name = "your APC realm here"
              trust_router_coi = "your APC realm here"
    3. If you have any other client definitions here, for example to distinguish between internal and external clients, also apply the change to them.

EAP Type

  1. Set the EAP type in use by Moonshot (EAP-TTLS) by editing /etc/freeradius/mods-enabled/eap. Find the first instance of default_eap_type = md5 and change it to TTLS, i.e.:

default_eap_type = ttls
Other EAP types should be supported (PEAP and MD5 have been tested).

Returning the User-Name

The APC must return the User-Name attribute in its RADIUS response.

  1. As root, find the post-auth section in the /etc/freeradius/sites-available/abfab-tr-idp file.

    1. Insert the below at the top of the section, if it does not already exist:

      	#  For EAP-TTLS and PEAP, add the cached attributes to the reply.
      	#  The "session-state" attributes are automatically cached when
      	#  an Access-Challenge is sent, and automatically retrieved
      	#  when an Access-Request is received.
      	#  The session-state attributes are automatically deleted after
      	#  an Access-Reject or Access-Accept is sent.
      	update {
      		&reply: += &session-state:
    2. Save the file.
  2. As root, find the post-auth section in the /etc/freeradius/sites-available/inner-tunnel file.
    1. At the top of the post-auth section, insert the following text:

      	#  Return the User-Name
      	update reply {
      		User-Name := &request:User-Name
    2. Then look for the following text towards the bottom of the post-auth section:

      	#  Instead of "use_tunneled_reply", uncomment the
      	#  next two "update" blocks.
      #	update {
      #		&outer.session-state: += &reply:
      #	}
      	#  These attributes are for the inner session only.
      	#  They MUST NOT be sent in the outer reply.
      	#  If you uncomment the previous block and leave
      	#  this one commented out, WiFi WILL NOT WORK,
      	#  because the client will get two MS-MPPE-keys
      #	update outer.session-state {
      #		MS-MPPE-Encryption-Policy !* ANY
      #		MS-MPPE-Encryption-Types !* ANY
      #		MS-MPPE-Send-Key !* ANY
      #		MS-MPPE-Recv-Key !* ANY
      #		Message-Authenticator !* ANY
      #		EAP-Message !* ANY
      #		Proxy-State !* ANY
      #	}
    3. If the text does not exist, insert it above the comments that describe the line "Post-Auth-Type REJECT {".
    4. Remove the comments from the update statements in the text.
    5. Save the file.

Resource Provider Authentication

All Resource Providers in the Trust Router network, including all IdPs and RP Proxies and the Trust Router itself, need to authenticate themselves to the APC using Moonshot. This means that for every service or organisation, you must provision a credential on the APC.

In a production environment, we recommend you use a method of Resource Provider Authentication that integrates well with your chosen method of managing your Trust Router infrastructure.

See Configuring FreeRADIUS to Use a Local Identity Store for options to define credentials.

We recommend using an automatic means to provision credential files, such as an online portal.

Defining the APC credential

During testing, we recommend using the FreeRADIUS users file to define credentials that your Resource Providers can use to authenticate to the APC. We will create a user with username "testapc" and password "testing".

  1. Open /etc/freeradius/users for editing and put the following at the top of the file:

    testapc	Cleartext-Password := "testing"
    			Reply-Message = "Hello test user. You have authenticated!"

    The formatting of the stanza above is very important. There should be a <tab> in between the username and Cleartext-Password, and a line break followed by a <tab> before the Reply-Message.

Provisioning the APC credential

For the APC credential you defined in the previous step, create a Moonshot credential XML file:

  1. Set the <user> tag to the credential you defined in the previous step, e.g. testapc
  2. Set the <password> tag to its appropriate password. You may wish to base64-encode the password.
  3. Set the <realm> tag to YOUR_APC_REALM.
  4. You can leave the <services> tag out.
  5. You should set the <selection-rules> tag to:

  6. Define either of the two trust anchors as per the moonshot-webp XML Format documentation.

    For simple test infrastructures, you may leave out the trust anchors, but it is not recommended.

  7. Save the file, then deploy it onto the Trust Router that you are connecting to this APC (see Section 3.2.2 of Install a Trust Router).

Configure the Trust Router connection

The APC is fundamental to a Trust Router network, so the next step involves configuring the Trust Router client software and configuring its connection to a Trust Router.

Set up the FreeRADIUS and Trust Router users

We need to place the FreeRADIUS user and the Trust Router users into each other's groups to allow them to read each other's shared files.

$ adduser freerad trustrouter
$ adduser trustrouter freerad

Configure TIDS

The APC also runs the Temporary ID Server (TIDS).

  1. Open the /etc/default/trust_router file for editing. If necessary, create it.

    ipaddr="[your server IP]"
    hostname="[your server hostname]"


Now that we have the Moonshot IdP installed and configured, we're now ready to test!

At this point you probably want three consoles open on the server, so that you can manually run various components separately.

Testing FreeRADIUS locally

The first test is to check whether FreeRADIUS is working in its most basic manner.

  1. In window 1, run (as root user)

    $ freeradius -fxx -l stdout
  2. In window 2, run (as root user)

    $ radtest testapc@YOUR-APC-REALM testing localhost 2222 testing123

    This uses the "radtest" utility which is used in the following way - radtest username password servername port shared-secret

  3. If this is working correctly you should see something like the following:

    Sending Access-Accept of id 57 from port 1812 to port 33363
         Reply-Message = 'Hello test user. You have authenticated!'
    (1) Finished request 1.
    Waking up in 0.3 seconds.
    Waking up in 4.6 seconds.
    (1) Cleaning up request packet ID 57 with timestamp +94
    Ready to process requests.
    Sending Access-Request of id 57 from port 33363 to port 1812
         User-Name = 'testapc'
         User-Password = 'testing'
         NAS-IP-Address =
         NAS-Port = 2222
         Message-Authenticator = 0x00
    rad_recv: Access-Accept packet from host port 1812, id=57, length=61
         Reply-Message = 'Hello test user. You have authenticated!'

Testing the Trust Router connection

To test the connection to Trust Router, we need to make sure the Temporary Identity Server (TIDS) software is running, then use the Temporary Identity Client (TIDC) software to simulate a connection to the Trust Router.

Starting the Temporary Identity Server (TIDS)

In window 3 (window 1 should still be still running the FreeRADIUS server and window 2 the radtest command), run the TIDS software:

$ tids [your server IP] testapc@YOUR-APC-REALM [your server hostname] /var/lib/trust_router/keys

testapc@YOUR-APC-REALM is the identity that the trust router will use when provisioning keys - this makes it easy to spot in your own log files.
Specifying your server's IP and hostname may seem redundant (and for single server deployments, it is!). You'll need to set the hostname and IP arguments a little differently if you want to enable some more advanced configurations (such as load balancing and key sharing).

This uses the "tids" binary which is used in the following way - tids [your-ip-address] trustrouter-gss-name] [your-hostname] [path-to-key-database]

When using Network Address Translation (NAT) or a firewall, you must specify your external IP address.


Run an APC authentication test

At this point, you must configure your trust router to use testapc@YOUR-APC-REALM as authentication.

  1. The trust router configuration must be updated with the test user associated with your trust router's rp_realm filter lines.
  2. The trust router configuration must be updated with your new APC designated as the APC for your trust router.
  3. The trust router must have its Moonshot credential store updated with the test user and its password.
  4. The trust router must be restarted. At this point, the trust router will attempt to authenticate itself to the APC.
  5. In the FreeRADIUS console, you should see an Access-Accept response.


Next Steps

At this point, you now have a Moonshot APC that is working. Now for the next steps:

Automatically start the software


To automatically start FreeRADIUS, issue the following command (as root):

$ sudo update-rc.d freeradius defaults

If this is working correctly, you should see FreeRADIUS running as a daemon process.


To automatically start TIDS, issue the following command (as root):

$ sudo update-rc.d tids defaults
$ sudo service tids start 

If this is working correctly, you should see TIDS running as a daemon process.

Configure a real source of Authentication

Your FreeRADIUS server can currently only authenticate a single user - "testapc". At this point, you will want to connect to your management database. The FreeRADIUS site has information and instructions for how to do this.